RhoC (aplysia ras-related homolog 9) is a small GTPase of the Rho subfamily of Ras-related small GTPases and is involved in the regulation of cytoskeleton assembly and actin dynamics. RhoC is thought to regulate actin stress fiber assembly and focal adhesion formation, although most studies on Rho function do not differentiate between the specific activities of RhoA, RhoB and RhoC. RhoC is likely involved in cell motility. Notably, although mutational activation of RhoC has not been found in tumors, overexpression of RhoC has been detected in cancer cells. RhoC overexpression has been linked to increased cancer cell invasion and metastasis. RhoC might also be involved in apoptosis regulation. Indeed, different members of the family of human Rho GTPases, including RhoA, RhoC and Rac1, have been shown to participate in the regulation of apoptosis in response to cytokines and serum. Apoptosis appears to be mediated by the p53 tumor-suppressor protein; however, in the human erythroleukemia K562 cell line, RhoC regulates apoptosis in a p53-independent manner. RhoC is also involved in cell-cycle progression, cell differentiation and angiogenesis.
Alternative names for this molecule:
Aplysia ras-related homolog 9 (RhoC); Arh9; Arhc; Ras homolog 9 (RhoC); Ras homolog gene family, member C; Rhoc; RhoC; RHOH9; SIG-61; Silica-induced gene 61 protein